Day 2 :
- Neurology | Spine and Spinal Disorders | Stroke |Pediatric Neurology | Clinical Neurology | Dementia | Parkinsons | Neurosurgery | Diagnosis and Imaging Techniques | Pharmaceuticals and Therapies | Case reports
Nakae Hospital, Sapporo, Japan
Seiju Kobayashi was born on March 11, 1976 in Japan. Presently Holding a position of Director in department of Psychiatry and Medicine at Nakae Hospital From 2001-2002 worked at Department of Neuropsychiatry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, 2002-2003: Department of Psychiatry, Goryokai Hospital, 2003-2004: Department of Neuropsychiatry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan, 2004-2008: Department of Psychiatry, Sunagawa City Medical Center, Sunagawa, Japan, 2008-2016: Department of Neuropsychiatry, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan , 2017 : Nakae Hospital.
Current diagnostic criteria recommend neuroimaging as a diagnostic support tool for the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Because DLB causes characteristic impairments and disabilities, such as neuroleptic hypersensitivity, which may significantly increase morbidity and mortality, its prompt and correct diagnosis is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent with which diagnostic accuracy can be increased using a combination of brain perfusion SPECT (bp-SPECT), 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG scintigraphy), and DAT-SPECT. Taking finances and patient burden into consideration, we compared the tests to determine priority.
Methods: Thirty-four patients with probable DLB (75.0 ± 8.3 years old, 14 male: 20 female) underwent bp-SPECT, MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, and DAT-SPECT.
Results: Our comparison of three functional imaging techniques indicated that MIBG scintigraphy (79%) or DAT-SPECT (79%) had better sensitivity for characteristic abnormalities in DLB than bp-SPECT (53%). The combination of the three modalities could increase sensitivity for diagnosis of DLB to 100%. Additionally the ratio of patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was significantly higher in MIBG (+) group than in MIBG (-) group.
Conclusions: In the stand-alone diagnostic means, priority should be placed on MIBG scintigraphy or DAT-SPECT for the diagnosis of DLB. However, our results suggest that the combination of bp-SPECT, MIBG scintigraphy, and DAT-SPECT increased accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of DLB.
University of Plymouth
Chun-Wei Hsu is doing her Ph.D. in Psychology at University of Plymouth since April 2014. She went to undergraduate school at National Taiwan University, and double majored in life science and psychology within four years (Sep. 2007 – Jun. 2011). Later, she completed a master’s degree in Cognitive Neuroscience and Human Neuroimaging at University of Sheffield (Se. 2012 – Aug. 2013). Currently, her Ph.D. project is to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception through creativity and neuroscience. Chun-Wei is interested in how people conduct high-level cognition in complex social interaction and how people evaluate expect the pay-offs and take action during the decision-making process. Ideal interaction requires people to simulate others' perspectives and shape their behaviors, which is of great interest to her. Human neuroimaging methods with fMRI or EEG are the approach she wants to use to answer my research questions.
Concealed information paradigms (CITs) have been developed to determine if an individual is familiar with a certain piece of information such as a crime-related item. The main logic of CITs is that recognition of an item of interest (probe) will generate a differential response, compared to suitable control items (irrelevants) that can be detected by monitoring behavioral, psychophysiological, or neural variables.
An important issue is an extent to which countermeasures used by suspects can reduce the accuracy of the CIT. Recent work has focused on neural variables measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because at first sight, such variables may seem more resistant to countermeasures than more peripheral variables. Previous work has shown that hybrid physical and mental countermeasures can decrease the accuracy of fMRI-based CITs, but questions remain as to whether purely mental countermeasures can do so as well. Existing evidence shows that attentional and memory strategies can decrease the accuracy with which one can use fMRI to detect successful recognition in standard face recognition tasks.
The aim of this fMRI study was to determine if such mental countermeasures are effective also with standard CITs. Participants (N=20) were tested under three conditions: no knowledge, concealed knowledge, and countermeasures. Results based on regions of interest defined in previous CIT studies showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for discriminating no knowledge and concealed knowledge cases with multi-voxel pattern analyses was 0.86 without countermeasures. Critically, memory and attentional countermeasures significantly reduced the AUC to 0.74.
These results indicate that purely mental countermeasures can reduce the accuracy of fMRI-based CITs, even without extensive training of participants.
Jarren Mae R. Escape has completed her Doctor of Medicine degree at the age of 24 years old from University of Santo Tomas. She finished her three-year residency training in Pediatrics at Makati Medical Center.
Febrile seizures (FS) occur in 4-5% of children and account for the majority of seizures seen in children in emergency rooms. Local clinical practice guidelines for FS were developed in 2004. We undertook this study to look at the demographic profile of children admitted with FS, review their clinical course, diagnostic evaluations, drug management, etiology of fever, and neurological outcome. It is our hope that the information gained from this study would aid in the revision and adaptation of local clinical practice guidelines for FS. Objective: To describe the clinical profile, fever etiology, clinical course, diagnostics and neurological outcome of patients admitted with febrile seizures. Data gathered was compared with clinical practice guidelines. Methodology: Retrospective descriptive study that reviewed hospital records of children admitted with febrile seizures over 7 years. Results: A total of 373 patients comprised the sample population. Eighty-nine percent were simple febrile seizures. Ages ranged from 3 to 91 months with the largest group in the 13-18 month old range. There was male preponderance and higher number of admissions during the rainy season. Family history was common, paternal side dominant. The most common cause of fever was upper respiratory tract infection and systemic viral Illness. CBC was done in all patients. EEG’s were done in 27.35% of patients; 41 % done in simple febrile seizures. Intravenous fluids and antipyretics were given and diazepam was ordered in all patients; antibiotics were given to 62.2 % of patients. Patients with complex febrile seizure are more likely to be referred to subspecialist and/or have more laboratory and imaging tests. Neurological outcome was normal. Conclusion: This study showed male preponderance, increased paternal family history and seasonal variation in FS. In spite of upper respiratory tract infection and systemic viral diseases being the most common cause of fever, majority of patients received antibiotics. There was noted deviation from approved clinical practice guidelines.
Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Iran
Nargol Ahmadi-Mahmoodabadi is a PhD in Cognitive Neuroscience. Her research and practice areas of interest are Behavioral neuroscience, Learning and memory and Behavioral neurophysiology.
This study performed to investigate the influence of bilateral post-training intra-prelimbic (PL) microinjections of serotonergic 5-HT4 receptor agents (RS67333, as a 5-HT4 receptor agonist and RS23597-190, as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist ) upon amnesia induced by a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) in rats. The step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) and open filed apparatuses were used to examine the memory consolidation and locomotion behaviors, respectively. Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra-PL microinjections of the drugs. Also, post-training administration of the drugs was performed with the volume of 0.6 μl/rat (0.3 μl/side). Based on our findings, post-training bilateral intra-PL microinjection of ACPA (0.1 and 0.5 µg/rat) decreased, whereas RS67333 (0.5 μg/rat) increased IA memory consolidation. Meanwhile, post-training bilateral intra-PL administration of RS23597-190 (0.005, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 μg/rat) did not alter memory consolidation. Moreover, intra-PL microinfusion of RS67333 (0.005 μg/rat) plus the lower (0.001 µg/rat) or the higher (0.1 µg/rat) dose of ACPA potentiated or restored the memory consolidation impairment induced by ACPA, respectively. While, post-training administration of RS23597-190 (0.5 μg/rat) plus the higher dose of ACPA (0.1 μg/rat) potentiated the ACPA response. However, none of the above interventions did not affect locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the PL 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia.
Medical University in Sofia
Victor Manolov has completed his PhD from Medical University in Sofia, Bulgaria. He is working as Assist. Prof. at Department of Clinical laboratory and clinical immunology at the same University. He has interests in iron metabolism, gynecology, neurology, endocrinology and pediatrics. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and participated in more than 60 National and International meetings in different medicine fields.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are part of neurodegenerative diseases. Their development is slow, progressive and most common is seen in elderly patients. Hepcidin leads to iron deposition in neuronal structures as a result from oxidative stress. We tried to evaluate serum hepcidin levels in neurodegenerative diseases and search for connection to disturbed iron homeostasis. 23 patients with AD, 17 cases with PD and 13 with ALS were included; 24 males (45.3%). They were clinically and neurologically reviewed, EMG; IMT and ABI were measured. They were evaluated for routine biochemical parameters, and additional serum hepcidin were quantified. AAS, nephelometric, ELISA and statistical methods were used during analyzes and obtained results interpretation. All results were compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. We found statistically significant elevated serum hepcidin in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (AD: 47.9 ± 3.1 µg/L; PD: 49.8 ± 5.1 µg/L; ALS: 53.8 ± 4.9 µg/L) compared to healthy controls (19.9 ± 4.1 µg/L); P<0.001. Serum hepcidin correlates negatively to glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase changes in evaluated neurodegenerative diseases patients (0.9<r<0.7; P<0.05). Our findings support role of serum hepcidin quantification as a marker for iron deposition in neurodegenerative diseases and might bring new view to early therapeutic implementation in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.